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Terms of Reference Consultancy to conduct research in Somalia on climate change, conflict and peace

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  • Post date:21 Nov 2019
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Terms of Reference Consultancy to conduct research in Somalia on climate change, conflict and peace

  1. Background of the Organization

NCA is a diaconal organization established in Norway to work with people around the world to eradicate poverty and injustice. Our vision is Together for a Just World. The overarching goal for NCA in Somalia is to support development that promotes human dignity for the poor and for vulnerable groups through programmes that create greater participation, equality and protection. NCA provides humanitarian assistance and works for long-term development. To address the root causes of poverty, we advocate for just decisions by public authorities, businesses and religious leaders. Our support is provided unconditionally, with no intention of influencing anyone’s religious or political affiliation. Most of our work is undertaken together with local civil society partners and faith actors.

The NCA Somalia’s goal and vision as outlined in the 2016-2020 Country Strategy is to contribute to safer and resilient communities where people have participated in their own development for improved health, economic empowerment and secure environment.

To achieve this goal, NCA Somalia is focusing on four thematic programmes namely: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Gender Based Violence (GBV), Education for Sustainable Development and Economic Empowerment. NCA has included Peace Building as another thematic programme in the 2020-2024 Country Strategy. In addition, NCA also responds to emergency humanitarian needs and works to strengthen civil society actors. The target geographical areas in Somalia are: Gedo region- Jubbaland State, Lower Shabelle- Southwest State, Banadir Region- Mogadishu, and Puntland State.

  1. Background and objectives of the study

There is a growing awareness of the links between climate change and conflicts. Research, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s, identifies climate change as a driver for conflicts, but there is also an increasing understanding of the possibilities for climate action to contribute to peace building.

For members of the ACT Alliance, working in the nexus between humanitarian relief and long-term development, understanding and knowledge about the links between conflicts and climate change is important. First and foremost, to inform policymakers so that they can make informed, targeted and efficient decisions.

Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) and DanChurchAid (DCA) together with ACT Alliance and ACT Alliance EU have come together to carry out a global study on climate change, conflict and peace.

The overall objective of this initiative is to inform policymakers and the public at large about the possible linkages and effects between climate change, conflict and peace. In the case of Somalia, the specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To analyze the potential link between climate change, conflict and peace.
  2. To develop evidence-based messages targeting policymakers at national and regional level for action on climate mitigation.
  3. To identify potential opportunities for climate action and peacebuilding in Somalia.
  4. To recommend strategies and solutions to tackle climate change and conflict and promote peace at national and regional level.
  5. To generate knowledge on climate change that is specific to Somalia and can be used in other sectors relevant to NCA Somalia programming. (WASH, Economic Empowerment, Gender Based Violence and Education and Peace Building.)

The global study builds on desk review of academic and practitioners’ documents as well as field research in two countries i.e. Mali and Somalia.

  1. Scope of the work

Against this background, NCA Somalia is looking for a local consultant to conduct research in Somalia. The consultancy will be focused on an in-depth analysis of the relationship between climate change and risks and dynamics of conflict in Somalia. Specifically, the analysis will focus on four locations: Banadir Jubbaland, Puntland and Southwest assessing the ramifications of climate change on economic and societal development, as well as on community relations. The field research should consider and build on previous desk and field studies.

  1. Research questions

The overall questions this research seeks to address are as follows:

  1. Are people experiencing effects of climate change, and in that case, do they see these effects as a risk for local development, and/or links to conflicts?
  2. To what extent are effects of climate change creating tensions and conflict?
  3. What are the effects of climate change on water, sanitation and hygiene?
  4. What is the impact of climate change in food production systems?
  5. What are local communities doing themselves, to reduce/respond to risks related to the effects of climate change, also in relation to conflict and intergroup dynamics?
  6. What kind of conflicts exist/effect the local communities, and are any of the conflicts related to climate change?
  7. Do local communities receive any assistance (from the government (Federal, State and local authorities), donors and other) to reduce/respond to risks related to the effects of climate change (related to conflict)? And in that case how?
  8. What would local communities like to see, in terms of climate action, to reduce the climate change risks – also in relation to conflict – in their communities, and what barriers do they see, for that to happen?
  9. Do local communities see conflict as a hinder to reduce the risks related to climate change?
  10. What are the government (Federal, State and local authorities), doing themselves, to reduce/respond to risks related to the effects of climate change, also in relation to conflict? Are there any capacity gaps on the side of authorities?
  11. What would local authorities like to see, in terms of climate action, to reduce the risks related to climate change (especially related to conflict), and what hinderances do they see, for that to happen? And do they see any possibility for adaptation to promote peace building?

The field researcher will be expected to develop specific questions for data collection linked to the above-referred research questions. It is expected that the interview guide will be attached to the inception report prepared by the consultant and submitted to NCA.

Questions will be posed, in a conflict and gender sensitive manner, to 1) people who still live in their communities, including community representatives (e.g. elders, religious leaders, indigenous/marginalize group leaders, women leaders, youth leaders etc.), 2) people who have been displaced, and who now are either IDPs or cross-border refugees, 3) local and national authorities, and 4) NGOs and international organizations which are active in the area. 5) If relevant, different ethnical/religious groups should also be approached. In doing this, it will also consider diversity within these populations (ethno-religious, linguistic, etc.).

In interviews questions should be phrased differently as respondents may not be aware of words used in the climate debate. Reference to climate related effects in the country, such as recent droughts, could be more relevant to use.

List of respondents (direct interviews or focus groups)

Category Somalia
People  who  still  live  in their Puntland: Nugal Region (areas with farmer & pastoralist
community
conflicts); Bari Region (communities affected by drought
and  conflicts  +  Coastal  towns  affected  by  cyclones,
tsunamis, etc)
Jubbaland: Gedo  Region  in  Dollow  and  Belet  Hawa
(communities affected by floods, drought and conflicts)
South West: Lower Shabelle: Communities affected by
drought and conflict
People who have been displaced Banadir Region (Mogadishu): IDP camps with people
displaced by drought and conflict
Puntland: Nugal Region- IDP camps with people displaced
by drought and conflicts; Bosaso: influx of IDPs as a result
of drought and conflicts
Jubbaland: Gedo region- IDP Camps with people displaced
by drought, floods and conflict
Local and national authorities, District Administrators in all regions
formal or informal State officials (line ministry and agencies responsible for
disaster management)
Federal officials (line ministries and agencies responsible
for disaster management)
NGOs and INGOs working on Climate Change issues: World Vision,
international organizations Arche Nova
UN agencies working on climate related issues: UNDP,
FAO, etc.
Specialized research agencies like FEWSNET and FSNAU
Local NGOs/partners working on climate change issues:-
KAALO, ASEP, etc.
Relevant ethnical/religious Community/religious leaders
groups Women groups
Youth groups
Community groups: WASH Committees, farmer groups,
fisher groups, pastoralist groups, etc.
5.  Methodology

The consultant is expected to propose an elaborate methodology of which a summarized version should be included in the application proposal. The methodology should be appropriate for the Somalia context and must be developed with do-no-harm principles in mind. Data and information collected in the course of the assignment will be used solely for the purpose of the assignment and handed over to NCA once the assignment has been completed. This will be reviewed and discussed with the contracting authority for approval before proceeding with the field work. Some of the tools should include but will not be limited to: secondary literature review, household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Disaggregation of data (e.g. men, women, children, youth, elderly, people with disability, minority groups etc.) must be outlined in the proposed methodology.

  1. Deliverables
  1. A 10-page inception report, containing the detailed methodology, the research protocol and workplan indicating timelines. The report will provide enough details for NCA to assess the soundness of the proposed methodology and overall approach. The inception report will have to be approved by NCA.
  2. All collected data, including household survey datasets, interviews and focus groups summaries or transcripts will be handed over to NCA.
  • A technical report covering all research questions (max. 40 pages, excluding annexes) that will guide NCA Somalia in programming.

IV.

A 4-5 pages analytical summary report based on the research aligned to the research questions relevant to the global DCA-NCA climate, conflict and peace report (e.g. excluding research questions 3 and 4).

  1. A max. 1.5-page report on the fieldwork experience, reflecting changes to agreed plan, observations, challenges, and comments / recommendations the consultant(s) would like to share.

 

  1. Duration and working days

The deliverables outlined under section 6 shall be completed within Max. 40 days of work.

Phase Task
Phase 1 Desk review, development of tools and inception report (Delivery I)
Phase 2 Consultative meetings at field level, training of enumerators and
pre-testing of tools
Phase 3 Data collection in the field including travel days
Phase 4 Data analysis and development of draft technical and analytical
reports. (Deliveries III and IV)
Phase 5 Validation of draft reports and presentation of initial findings and
recommendation (Deliveries III and IV)
Final Phase Submission of final reports: (Deliveries III, IV, V)
Submission of raw data: (Delivery II)

Qualifications and skills

  • University degree in any field, preferably Social Sciences. Post graduate education is an added advantage and experience in natural science(climate)
  • In-depth knowledge and experience on research methods (household survey, key informant interviews and focus group discussions).
  • Knowledge and understanding of Somalia context
  • Practical knowledge and understanding of peace, conflict and climate change issues.
  • Knowledge of NCA thematic programme areas (Peacebuilding, WASH, GBV, Education and Economic Empowerment) would be an asset
  • Excellent Analytical, Communication and Report writing skills
  • Self-starter with an ability to work with minimal supervision
  • Strong interpersonal skills
  • Ability to maintain one’s composure while under pressure
  • Evidence of use of ethical consideration and methodological measures for conducting research with women, men, boys and girls in sensitive topics.
  1. Language: Excellent spoken and written English and Somali.
  2. Submission of Proposals

Qualified consultants/firms are therefore asked to submit their expression of interest with the following details:

  • A cover letter detailing suitability to undertake the assignment.
  • Summary of proposed approach and methodology.
  • Detailed work plan and the corresponding budget.
  • Company profile/CV of the lead consultant who will undertake the assignment including a list of at least two names of referees you have worked for in similar assignments in Somalia before.
  • A sample of previous research work similar to this assignment.

This should be submitted to vacancies.ncakenya@nca.no with the subject line NCA Consultancy – Climate, Conflict and Peace Research. Deadline for submissions: 1st Dec 2019.

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