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Terms of Reference (ToR) for NEXUS Consortium – Somalia/Somaliland

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  • Post date:18 Feb 2021
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Job Description

NEXUS Stronger Together

Terms of Reference (ToR)


NEXUS is a platform for change in response to the contemporary challenges to Somalia and Somaliland. The main goal of NEXUS Consortium is to transform humanitarian, development and peace ecosystem. The consortium, led by nine pioneering Somali NGOs, aspires to advance a locally driven agenda for change by building partnerships between communities, civil society and the public and private sectors as well as through the implementation of integrated and sustainable interventions across the triple nexus of humanitarian, peace and development.

NEXUS core members possess wide-ranging technical capacities and represent communities across all Federal Member States of Somalia and Somaliland. Nexus has two international partners who are committed to the localization agenda – Oxfam and Save the Children – and who will support Nexus during its formative years.

Nexus embodies the next evolutionary step of the Somali aid system, pioneering a locally led approach to delivering integrated peacebuilding, humanitarian and development interventions.

By breaking the silos of humanitarian aid, development and peacebuilding and by creating much-needed spaces for local organizations to lead the way in seeking, scaling and integrating solutions across these sectors, Nexus proposes local leadership as more than a means of realizing localization commitments – but as a revolutionary reform to the international systems at play in Somalia, among them the adoption of Community-Driven Development (CDD) model/approaches to ensure bottom-up approach to humanitarian, development and peace building interventions.

As a leader for public-private partnerships, Nexus seeks to leverage multidimensional engagements between local communities, civil society and the public and private sectors to advance a new framework for interventions in the Somali context that includes an integrated, early action emergency response infrastructure and community-based development initiatives that will serve as an entry point for peacebuilding and conflict resolution. Nexus’ approach is ambitious but is grounded in the widely recognized need for more dynamic interventions to the chronic challenges faced by Somalia and Somaliland.

Community-Driven Development Model

Previous conventional and traditional development models supporting development interventions in Somalia have tended to be top-down in nature with little or no local beneficiaries’ participation. The need to have a better people (beneficiaries) centered and informed development model was one of the key reasons why NEXUS was born. One key approach and innovation that NEXUS has targeted and received positive feedback is the Community-Driven Development model of planning and implementing humanitarian and development projects with conflict resolution and peacebuilding within communities mainstreamed within the interventions.

Community Driven Development (CDD), as defined by the World Bank Group, is “an approach that empowers local community groups, including local government, by giving direct control to the community over planning decisions and investment resources through a process that emphasizes participatory planning and accountability.” The logic underpinning the CDD approach recognizes communities as the primary actor best equipped to identify and prioritize development challenges and solutions.

The objective of the CDD projects is “to facilitate the attainment of social, governance and physical outcomes by communities through a participatory community-driven development process that enables the communities identify and implement selected priority projects under their own managed supervision mechanism resulting in increased service delivery access that meets a communally agreed need.” In Somalia Community-Driven Development model in project implementation can be an effective way of supporting communities faced by a multiple crises including erratic climate shocks, protracted conflicts, disease outbreaks and locust infestation as well as the challenge posed by COVID-19 pandemic. In addition the model ensures the adoption of an inclusive Community selection process with women, youth and the marginalized participating on an equal basis to men (Somalia has a highly patriarchal system where elders lay claim to representing their communities).

At its core, for NEXUS Consortium, CDD is not a project but a process, wherein development initiatives and administrative structures empower communities and local governments to take control of their own development. The NEXUS CDD approach envisions bringing together a broad base of community stakeholders in government, the private sector, and the wider community, with representation from underrepresented or marginalized groups.

NEXUS Consortium being an innovative platform recognizes the need for development of the CDD model as a cross sectoral tool that when applied can effectively harness the synergies between technical sectoral approaches, government approaches, and direct community-support approaches that otherwise dominate development assistance and aid provision. CDD has been observed to achieve extended positive outcomes, including the alleviation of poverty, improved prioritization of needs, strengthening of local government, and improved social services and development investment targeting.1 Moreover, the CDD model has been lauded by major international development actors as a means to break the silos of traditional development and aid and to better integrate development assistance with early recovery humanitarian aid interventions while achieving community ownership and sustainability.

NEXUS also recognizes the multitude of measures and sectors upon which CDD can bring positive impact for benefiting communities makes the approach particularly important within the context of conflict-affected states. For instance, in states recovering from or afflicted by ongoing conflict, the CDD model has been found to support government capacity development and legitimacy.

Development of a Harmonized Community-Driven Development Model for NEXUS Consortium

3.1 Objective

To develop a Community-Driven Development (CDD) model for NEXUS Consortium that will be innovative for utilization as a tool for bottom- up assessment of needs and development of local solutions based on identified needs and relevant to Somalia context especially in supporting the transition from conflict to peace. The proposed NEXUS Community-Driven Development model will be authoritative and innovative for adoption and use by different range of actors including local authorities, communities and development partners. The model will also be required to be relevant and effective in addressing the need for inclusion especially of women and the socially marginalized groups and persons and also in supporting the triple nexus approach on humanitarian, development and peace requirements of communities in Somalia.

3.2 Proposed form of the proposed harmonized CDD Model

The following are some of the guideline to the proposed new NEXUS CDD model relevant and effective in addressing the humanitarian, development and peace requirements of communities in Somalia. The following are some of the proposed salient features:-

The consortium seeks to develop its own CDD approach that will be used within and outside the consortium to help guide local communities in the assessment of needs, identification of design of planned priority projects, design and implementation of priority projects as well as monitoring and evaluation of projects (including structures) implemented under the model. The CDD model planned should be one whose approach and processes are easy to understand by local communities and authorities.

Currently some NEXUS members have their own CDD model /approaches which they are using in the assessment, identification and implementation of projects delivering basic services to communities in the areas where they operate. However these CDD Models have variances and points of emphasis that make them different. The consortium objective is to have one harmonized CDD model/ approach that will provide clear guidelines and protocols in the implementation of CDD projects in Somalia.

NEXUS Consortium seeks to develop an indigenous CDD model for Somalia that is informed and is applicable to Somalia Context, is inclusive, aligned to the local culture and capable of greatly

transferring knowledge and skills required to support local development especially in the provision of basic infrastructure and sustainable resource utilization. The proposed development of the indigenous CDD approach for Somalia will be highly consultative and broad involving International and local NGOs, Government (Federal and Government), development partners, community groups especially the marginalized and minority groups.

The proposed CDD Model is expected to inform on concrete steps to inform on environmental protection measures that communities can appreciate and adopt as part of empowering them in ensuring priority projects identified consider environmentally friendly design and implementation.

The planned NEXUS CDD model should also endeavor to develop strategies on empowering communities ensure priority projects supported have locally acceptable mechanisms of ensuring they are well managed and sustainable beyond donor funding.

Ensuring the CDD model is conflict sensitive and has practical steps to ensure it does not exacerbate local conflicts but supports sustainable solutions to local conflicts and reinforce peace in line with the triple nexus platform of supporting humanitarian, development and peace.

NEXUS Consortium seeks to develop a CDD model that can stand scrutiny and be judged as supporting consultative processes that are legitimate and above board. The model should also be able to support design and implementation processes for projects that are ethical and support accountability at every stage.

NEXUS CDD model is also planned to be supportive of local governments’ development planning. CDD will aid many of the local authorities especially the District Councils which are under formation in many parts of Somalia to have a community consultative tool and processes that will aid in the assessment and design of community priority projects, ensuring the participation of local communities, better sense of ownership and also sustainability of the projects implemented.

NEXUS CDD programming will be aligned to NDP-9. CDD support existing humanitarian, development and peace plans developed at Federal and Regional as well as District administrations level.

Scope of the Assignment

Develop a consultative plan for the review of existing CDD type models and conduct extensive interviews with Interviews with NEXUS members, local governments and communities.

Develop acceptable CDD protocols, guidelines (with participatory context analyses, inclusiveness, prioritization, design, environment protection, sustainability, budgeting, community monitoring and where feasible community resource mobilization and management) to be used by government also, and other development agencies both public and private in undertaking CDD projects.

Develop learning and adaptation components for the CDD model capable of informing the model for further development and also replication.

Undertake the dissemination of the developed indigenous CDD model guidelines to NEXUS members for discussion, feedback, validation and adoption.


The prospective consultants/firms are required to propose a suitable and effective methodology for undertaking the assignment. This should include the proposed sources of CDD as a development tool based on documented best practices both internationally and in Somalia. The EOI should indicate the proposed consultative process on the assignment to be used to ensure a broad and insightful look into the current CDD models and approaches especially as practiced in Somalia.

The proposed methodology should be able to support generation of perspectives on a working CDD model relevant to Somalia context. Base on this it is important that a comprehensive literature review especially among the NEXUS partner organizations with experience in the use of the varying CDD models in implementing projects.

The methodology should be guided by some of the proposed questions (provided below) based on some key inquiry areas in supporting the development of the proposed harmonized CDD model. However these questions are a guide and are not exhaustive and the consultants engaged are required to further inquiry required in generating robust information for the harmonized CDD model. The consultant will develop questionnaires for application to the inquiry areas and indicate a working sample for the various groups and entities to be consulted in the inquiry.

Key questions in developing a harmonized Community-Driven Development Model/Approach




What CDD Models/approaches are in existence and being utilized


in Somalia by donors and Implementing partners? (Examples are


Somalia Stability Fund’s CDD Model, JPLG and DAI.



What are the points of commonality and variation among the

observed CDD models?


Provide a snapshot of the various CDD models and their

achievements and shortfalls.


What are the observed gaps in the current CDD Models and how

can a new locally developed NEXUS CDD model address the gaps?


How keen are the existing CDD models in ensuring better.


Engagement and


How can CDD mechanism support the participation of local

Role of Local

communities in undertaking needs assessment and search for




How can CDD support the participation and ownership of priority



How can CDD aid and integrate the traditional development

assistance with early recovery humanitarian aid interventions

while achieving community ownership and sustainability.


What support should communities receive in enhancing their

participation in all the stages of CDD projects?


What approach is required to engage local private sector in

partnering with communities and local authorities in CDD projects?


Engagement of


How should CDD engage with Federal, Regional Governments and

Federal, Regional

District Administrations in Somalia in promoting the model as a

Governments and

participatory approach (especially at advocacy level).



How can CDD support existing humanitarian, development and


peace plans developed at Federal and Regional as well as District

administrations level.


How can CDD be developed to work with the government and local

authorities as a tool for planning for development?


How can CDD be aligned to the National Development Plan (2021-

24) and also Regional States Development Plans?


Women, Youth,


How does CDD ensure that women, youth and other marginalized


social groups and individuals are prioritized for engagement?



What support mechanisms should CDD have to ensure that the

marginalized in communities benefit from the prioritized projects?


Ensuring Impactful


Have the current CDD models as implemented ensured inclusions

Inclusion of

of all in the communities especially women and socially


marginalized groups?



What is required in the CDD framework mechanism to ensure

more deliberate and impactful inclusion of women and other

socially marginalized groups?


Technical design


What suitable technical support should accompany CDD models in


ensuring informative and better design of CDD projects?



How should standards of infrastructural works be ensured in CDD




What participatory implementation monitoring of CDD projects

will ensure quality delivery of projects within the specified

timelines and budget?


How can a new CDD model ensure there is sustainability and

management of humanitarian, development and peacebulding

interventions become key in the assessment and design of CDD



How does CDD programming ensure environmental conservation?


Conflict and peace


How can CDD support the assessment of conflicts and support


their resolution by local communities supported by local



What structures need to be in place to support conflict resolution

within communities and support long time peace building?


Learning and


What have been the key lessons in CDD implementation in Somalia




How can these key lessons enrich the development of the CDD

Model to make it relevant and acceptable/desirable in planning of

projects/ interventions by communities?

Required Qualifications

Interested consultants and firms should demonstrate at least 7 experience in the design or implementation of Community-Driven Development projects and strategies especially within Somalia or pastoralists context. The consultants or firms should clearly indicate the lead and co-consultant to undertake the assignment and provide supportive CVs indicating the level of qualifications and years of experience in relevant participatory development field and approaches. Experience working with government on local development planning will be considered crucial in this assignment.

Planned Assignment Deliverables

The following will be the key assignment deliverables:-

An Expression of Interest (EOI)

Questionnaires for the various planned CDD sample groups.

III.   An inception report (with clear milestones and timelines).

IV. A Report on the CDD Consultative Process (Indicating sources of information, persons consulted and contacts).

A Draft NEXUS Community Driven Development Model Report

VI. A Final NEXUS Community Driven Development Model Report for submission to NEXUS Consortium.

Assignment Duration/ Reporting/Supervision

The duration of the assignment will be 25 days with an inception report being shared for discussion with NEXUS members within 5 days after the signing of the agreement. NEXUS Consortium Manager will be the overall supervisor and liaison/contact person for the engagement.

9.  Proposed Workplan/Timelines

Proposed Activity

Proposed Days

Party Responsible

EOI approval by NEXUS members and

Day 1

NEXUS Consortium

signing of the Assignment contract


Kick-off meeting (NEXUS Members and

Day 2

NEXUS Consortium



Inception Report Submission and

Day 3-8

NEXUS Consortium



Undertaking the consultations for the

Day 9-31

NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and

CDD models with NEXUS Members and


broad range of practitioners.

Submission and workshop on draft

Day 32-35

NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and

harmonized CDD Guidelines to NEXUS


and discussion and feedback from

members (4 days for the workshop

including 1 day for preparation after


Final NEXUS CDD Guidelines submission

NEXUS Consortium Secretariat and


How to apply

Interested consultants and consultancy firms are requested to submit the following documents:-

An expression of interest (EoI) or Technical Proposal indicating understanding of the assignment, detailing the experience in undertake a similar assignment in the past within Somalia context and indicating why the consultant or firm thinks it is suitable to undertake the assignment.

A workplan/timeline for the assignment

Financial Proposal

Certificate of Registration with relevant authorities in Somalia.

Interested Consultants and firms should submit their EOI and other documents in PDF format to info@sswc-som.org and cc hr@sswc-som.org by 28th February 2021

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